Initial Construction of the Exercise Maintenance Motivation Scale: A Mixed-Method Study

Truong Thanh Nam, Omid Dadras, Cua Ngoc Le, Doan Hoang Phu, Pham Trung Tin, Tran Dai An, Nguyen Tan Dat, Tran Nguyen Du, Nguyen Thi Hien, Truong Thi Tuyet Chau, Tran Van De, Huynh Khai Quang, Sang-arun Isaramalai, Charuai Suwanbamrung


This mixed-methods study aimed to develop and validate the exercise maintenance motivation (EMM) scale, designed to assess the motivation for maintaining exercise among fitness center (FC) members in Vietnam. The two-phase study was conducted to outline the development process of the EMM-FC scale, which is grounded in Self-Determination Theory (SDT). In the first qualitative phase, ten in-depth interviews and four focus groups (n = 39) were performed, identifying five components of EMM through content analysis. Following this, the scale’s content and face validity were assessed through a connecting step and pre-testing, which led to the elimination of 20 items, resulting in 40 statements. In the second phase, a cross-sectional survey (n = 280) was conducted to assess the factorial structure of the EMM-FC scale with Exploratory Factor Analysis. Findings yielded five construct dimensions with satisfactory psychometric indicators, including convergent validity, discriminant validity, and internal consistency reliability of the EMM-FC scale. The 30-item EMM-FC scale covered five SDT-driven constructs, comprising of “Exercise achievements”, “Exercise environments”, “Exercise integration with life goals”, “Exercise enjoyment”, and “Workout-aholic”, explaining 61.3% of the variance. The scores of five constructs were positively correlated with the total scores of the scale and notably distinguished between exercise maintainers and non-exercise maintainers. Further research is required to thoroughly assess the scale’s robust psychometric properties to be applied in future practical research for exercise maintenance.


Doi: 10.28991/HEF-2023-04-04-06

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Exercise; Motivation; Fitness Center; Scale; Mixed-Method Study; Vietnam.


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DOI: 10.28991/HEF-2023-04-04-06


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