Performance of Hydrodynamics Flow on Flip Buckets Spillway for Flood Control in Large Dam Reservoirs

Omid Aminoroayaie Yamini, Mohammad Reza Kavianpour, Azin Movahedi


Flip buckets are usually used in high head dams to dissipate the destructive energy of high-speed jets. These structures are fixed at the ends of the outlet conduits to direct the moving jet into the atmosphere. The process of energy dissipation also resumes while the jet enters its downstream plunge pool. Although studies of flow over flip buckets date back to many years ago, there are still uncertainties regarding the flow behavior over these structures with various geometries and flow conditions. In this study, experimental measurements of static and dynamic pressures and their distribution over these structures are investigated. Measurements were made along two different simple flip buckets with various Froude numbers to determine the effects of the geometry and flow characteristics on the pressure field. Maximum pressures are also presented, and the results are compared with those of other investigations. The results of this study can be used to increase the safety of large dams that remain sustainable in the process of exploitation, such as irrigation, human consumption, industrial use, aquaculture, and navigability.


Doi: 10.28991/HEF-2020-01-01-05

Full Text: PDF


River; Pressure Distribution; Dynamic Pressure; Chute Spillway; Flow.


Lucas-Borja, M. E., Piton, G., Nichols, M., Castillo, C., Yang, Y., & Zema, D. A. (2019). The use of check dams for soil restoration at watershed level: A century of history and perspectives. Science of The Total Environment, 692, 37–38. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.07.248.

Peñas, F. J., & Barquín, J. (2019). Assessment of large-scale patterns of hydrological alteration caused by dams. Journal of Hydrology, 572, 706–718. doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2019.03.056.

Raso, L., Barbier, B., & Bader, J.-C. (2019). Modeling dynamics and adaptation at operational and structural scales for the ex-ante economic evaluation of large dams in an African context. Water Resources and Economics, 26, 100125. doi:10.1016/j.wre.2018.08.001.

George, M. F. (2019). High resolution spillway monitoring: Towards better erodibility models (and benchmarking spillway performance). Sustainable and Safe Dams Around the World, 2064–2071. doi:10.1201/9780429319778-184

Baker, D. W., & Reedy, K. A. (2008). Side-Channel Spillway Hydraulics (Case Study: Lake Skinner Spillway Adequacy Evaluation). World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2008. doi:10.1061/40976(316)241

Kaouachi, A., Carvalho, R. F., Benmamar, S., & Gafsi, M. (2019). Numerical assessment of the inception point in different stepped spillway configurations. Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 12(18). doi:10.1007/s12517-019-4717-1.

Bentalha, C., & Habi, M. (2019). Free surface profile and inception point as characteristics of aerated flow over stepped spillway: Numerical study. Journal of Water and Land Development, 42(1), 42–48. doi:10.2478/jwld-2019-0043.

Khatsuria, R. M. (2004). Energy Dissipators for Spillways. Hydraulics of Spillways and Energy Dissipators, 371–386. doi:10.1201/9780203996980-19.

Balloffet, A. (1961). Pressures on Spillway Flip Buckets. Journal of the Hydraulics Division, 87(5), 87–98. doi:10.1061/jyceaj.0000650.

Henderson, F. M., & Tierney, D. G. (1963). Flow at the toe of a spillway. La Houille Blanche, 49(1), 42–58. doi:10.1051/lhb/1963002.

Lenau, C. W., & Cassidy, J. J. (1969). Flow through Spillway Flip Bucket. Journal of the Hydraulics Division, 95(2), 633–648. doi:10.1061/jyceaj.0002029.

Steiner, R., Heller, V., Hager, W. H., & Minor, H.-E. (2008). Deflector Ski Jump Hydraulics. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 134(5), 562–571. doi:10.1061/(asce)0733-9429(2008)134:5(562).

Novak, P., Guinot, V., Jeffrey, A., & Reeve, D. E. (2018). Development of physical models. Hydraulic Modelling – an Introduction, 156–196. doi:10.1201/9781315272498-5.

Heller, V. (2011). Scale effects in physical hydraulic engineering models. Journal of Hydraulic Research, 49(3), 293–306. doi:10.1080/00221686.2011.578914

Water Research Institute, “Hydraulic Model of Gotwand Bottom Outlet- Final Report”, Hydraulic Structures Division, pp. 111-120, Tehran, Iran, (2008).

Heller, V., Hager, W. H., & Minor, H.-E. (2005). Ski Jump Hydraulics. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 131(5), 347–355. doi:10.1061/(asce)0733-9429(2005)131:5(347).

Juon, R., & Hager, W. H. (2000). Flip Bucket without and with Deflectors. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 126(11), 837–845. doi:10.1061/(asce)0733-9429(2000)126:11(837).

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.28991/HEF-2020-01-01-05


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Omid Aminoroayaie Yamini, Mohammad Reza Kavianpour, Azin Movahedi