Utilization Potential of Glass Fiber and Crumbled Rubber as Subgrade Reinforcement for Expansive Soil

Mahmoud Al-Khazaleh, Dua’a O. Al-Masri, Mohamad H. S. Al-Khodari, Diya' A. Y. Hamdan, Ala'a A. Y. Hamdan, Mohammad N. M. Bani Atta


Due to its high potential for volume change, expansive soil is a problematic building material that can cause harm to road infrastructure. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of glass fiber and rubber on the properties of expansive soil and their suitability as subgrade reinforcement in road applications. For different percentages of glass fiber and rubber in the soil, the Maximum Dry Density (MDD), Optimum Moisture Content (OMC), and CBR were measured. The results demonstrated that the incorporation of glass fiber and rubber improved the soil's properties. With increasing fiber and rubber content, the MDD and CBR increased, while the OMC decreased. In addition, the strength of the reinforced soil was significantly greater than that of the unreinforced soil. The research indicates that the addition of glass fiber and rubber can improve the efficacy of expansive soil as subgrade reinforcement in road applications.


Doi: 10.28991/HEF-2023-04-03-06

Full Text: PDF


Glass Fiber; Rubber Fiber; Expansive Soil; Soil Reinforcement; California Bearing Ratio.


Barman, D., & Dash, S. K. (2022). Stabilization of expansive soils using chemical additives: A review. Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, 14(4), 1319–1342. doi:10.1016/j.jrmge.2022.02.011.

Zamin, B., Nasir, H., Mehmood, K., Iqbal, Q., Bashir, M. T., & Farooq, A. (2021). Development of Some Novel Suction-Based Correlations for Swell Behavior of Expansive Soils. Advances in Civil Engineering, 2021, 1–13. doi:10.1155/2021/4825593.

Mohamed, A. A. M. S., Yuan, J., Al-Ajamee, M., Dong, Y., Ren, Y., & Hakuzweyezu, T. (2023). Improvement of expansive soil characteristics stabilized with sawdust ash, high calcium fly ash and cement. Case Studies in Construction Materials, 18, 1894. doi:10.1016/j.cscm.2023.e01894.

Soltani, A., Taheri, A., Deng, A., & Nikraz, H. (2022). Tyre rubber and expansive soils: Two hazards, one solution. Proceedings of Institution of Civil Engineers: Construction Materials, 175(1), 14–30. doi:10.1680/jcoma.18.00075.

Zada, U., Jamal, A., Iqbal, M., Eldin, S. M., Almoshaogeh, M., Bekkouche, S. R., & Almuaythir, S. (2023). Recent advances in expansive soil stabilization using admixtures: current challenges and opportunities. Case Studies in Construction Materials, 18. doi:10.1016/j.cscm.2023.e01985.

Yaghoubi, E., Yaghoubi, M., Guerrieri, M., & Sudarsanan, N. (2021). Improving expansive clay subgrades using recycled glass: Resilient modulus characteristics and pavement performance. Construction and Building Materials, 302, 124384. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2021.124384.

Ikeagwuani, C. C., & Nwonu, D. C. (2019). Emerging trends in expansive soil stabilisation: A review. Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, 11(2), 423–440. doi:10.1016/j.jrmge.2018.08.013.

Miah, M. T., Oh, E., Chai, G., & Bell, P. (2022). Effect of Swelling Soil on Pavement Condition Index of Airport Runway Pavement. Transportation Research Record, 2676(10), 553–569. doi:10.1177/03611981221090517.

Narani, S. S., Abbaspour, M., Mir Mohammad Hosseini, S. M., Aflaki, E., & Moghadas Nejad, F. (2020). Sustainable reuse of Waste Tire Textile Fibers (WTTFs) as reinforcement materials for expansive soils: With a special focus on landfill liners/covers. Journal of Cleaner Production, 247, 119151. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.119151.

Rabab’ah, S., Al Hattamleh, O., Aldeeky, H., & Abu Alfoul, B. (2021). Effect of glass fiber on the properties of expansive soil and its utilization as subgrade reinforcement in pavement applications. In Case Studies in Construction Materials (Vol. 14). doi:10.1016/j.cscm.2020.e00485.

Sujatha, E. R., Atchaya, P., Darshan, S., & Subhashini, S. (2021). Mechanical properties of glass fiber reinforced soil and its application as subgrade reinforcement. Road Materials and Pavement Design, 22(10), 2384–2395. doi:10.1080/14680629.2020.1746387.

Valipour, M., Shourijeh, P. T., & Mohammadinia, A. (2021). Application of recycled tire polymer fibers and glass fibers for clay reinforcement. Transportation Geotechnics, 27, 100474. doi:10.1016/j.trgeo.2020.100474.

Sosahab, J. S., Ardakani, A., & Hassanlourad, M. (2023). Resilient response and strength of highly expansive clay subgrade stabilized with recycled concrete aggregate and granulated blast furnace slag. Construction and Building Materials, 408, 133816. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2023.133816.

Amakye, S. Y., & Abbey, S. J. (2021). Understanding the performance of expansive subgrade materials treated with non-traditional stabilisers: A review. Cleaner Engineering and Technology, 4, 100159. doi:10.1016/j.clet.2021.100159.

Su, Y., Xiong, Z., Hu, Z., Zhu, W., Zhou, K., Wang, J., Liu, F., & Li, L. (2022). Dynamic bending study of glass fiber reinforced seawater and sea-sand concrete incorporated with expansive agents. Construction and Building Materials, 358, 129415. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2022.129415.

Akbarimehr, D., Eslami, A., & Aflaki, E. (2020). Geotechnical behaviour of clay soil mixed with rubber waste. Journal of Cleaner Production, 271, 122632. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.122632.

Archibong, F. N., Sanusi, O. M., Médéric, P., & Aït Hocine, N. (2021). An overview on the recycling of waste ground tyre rubbers in thermoplastic matrices: Effect of added fillers. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 175, 105894. doi:10.1016/j.resconrec.2021.105894.

Stevens, J. (1982). Unified soil classification system. Civil Engineering— American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), 52(12), 61-62.

Fadmoro, O. F., Kar, S. S., Tiwari, D., & Singh, A. (2022). Environmental and Economic Impact of Mixed Cow Dung and Husk Ashes in Subgrade Soil Stabilization. International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology, 15(4), 835–846. doi:10.1007/s42947-021-00056-8.

Saleh, S., Yunus, N. Z. M., Ahmad, K., & Ali, N. (2019). Improving the strength of weak soil using polyurethane grouts: A review. Construction and Building Materials, 202, 738–752. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2019.01.048.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.28991/HEF-2023-04-03-06


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2024 Mahmoud Al-Khazaleh, Dua’a O. Al-Masri, Mohamad H. S. Al-Khodari, Diya' A. Y. Hamdan, Ala'a A. Y. Hamdan, Mohammad N. M. Bani Atta