Production of Biodiesel from a Novel Combination of Raphia Africana Kernel Oil and Turtle Shell (Centrochelys Sulcata) Heterogenous Catalyst

Henry Oghenero Orugba, Kigho Moses Oghenejoboh, Ufuoma Modupe Oghenejoboh, Onogwarite E. Ohimor


This work investigated the viability of a non-edible oil obtained from raphia africana in the production of biodiesel using a novel heterogeneous catalyst derived from turtle shells (Centrochelys sulcata). The study also proposed the use of acetone as a co-solvent to enhance the solubility of the reacting mixtures. The turtle shells were calcined at 900oC for 3 hours, impregnated with KOH to improve their activity, and then supported with activated carbon produced from cassava peels to increase their surface area. The influences of KOH concentration, catalyst loading, catalyst/carbon mix ratio, and the concentration of acetone/methanol on the yield of biodiesel were investigated. The results obtained revealed that a maximum biodiesel yield of 93% was obtained from the bio-oil at a KOH concentration of 30% (w/w), catalyst loading of 6.5%, a solvent/methanol ratio of 0.4 and a catalyst/carbon weight ratio of 1.25. The activated carbon supported turtle shell catalyst has been found to possess very high catalytic activity, converting bio-oil with a high saturated fatty acid content to biodiesel with excellent fuel properties and a low saturated fatty acid profile.


Doi: 10.28991/HEF-2021-02-03-07

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Biodiesel; Turtle Shells; Raphia Africana; Calcination; Catalyst, Fatty Acid.


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DOI: 10.28991/HEF-2021-02-03-07


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